Regarding fine art. (Figure drawing/painting, still life, sculpture)
Today it is extremly confusing to choose what kind of art school to attend - but it seems like all schools and ateliers in general can be grouped into two categories -
* Those with emphasis on construction
* Those with emphasis on realism
(this will be a general guide, NOT 100% correct, feel free to debate or add)
The schools with emphasis on realism
Angel academy of art(Florence) (www.angelartschool.com)
Florence academy(Florence) (www.florenceacademyofart.com)
Charles Cecil(Florence) (http://www.charlescecilstudios.com/)
Academy of realist art(Toronto) (www.academyofrealistart.com)
and so forth, many more are listed on http://www.artrenewal.org/asp/database/atelier_list.asp
The schools with emphasis on construction
Ashland academy of art (Ashland, USA) (http://www.ashlandacademyofart.com/)
Glenn Vilppu's school of drawing (around the world, plus books and dvds) (http://www.vilppustudio.com/)
Art academy(Florence or Skt. Petersburg)(www.artac.org)
Bridgeview school of fine art(New York) (http://www.academicart.com/index.htm
Repin institute(Skt. Petersburg)
The drawing academy (Viborg, Denmark)(http://www.animwork.dk/Default.asp?ID=655)
Art school(Bulgaria) (www.nha.bg)
Otis college of Art and Design (http://otis.edu/academics/foundation/life_drawing.html)
Max the mutt (Toronto, Canada) http://www.maxthemutt.com/default.asp
Farigh Ghaderi (part time classes and summer workshops, Florence) (http://farighghaderi.com/academicdrawingfirenze.html)
Mentler (sketchbooks here on Conceptart) - http://conceptart.org/forums/showthread.php?t=26748 or http://conceptart.org/forums/showthread.php?t=72362
Classes and workshops with Rebecca Alzofon (http://academicfigure.com/skill_clinics.html#dwg1)
Schools that offer classes of both systems :
Art student legaue of New York (http://www.theartstudentsleague.org/)
Grand central academy of New York http://grandcentralacademy.classicist.org/index.html
Los Angeles Academy of Figurative Art http://www.laafa.org/
Mims studios (not entirely sure how they teach, but judging the work, they seem to emphasize the construction more than other similar realist schools, you should check it out yourself - dont take my word for it.) (http://www.mimsstudios.com/cssindexnew.htm)
And if you know of any other schools or classes, please reply with an URL in this thread and I'll add it to the list. (if I am able to catagorize the school)
-- About the schools that emphasise realism --
The schools that emphasise realism are built on the system of Bargue and partly on the system of the french academy. Their method is optical - they start by copying shadow shapes rather than constructing a figure.
They emphasise technical mastery of the materials(paper, paints, colors, glazing, varnish) and completeness of a work of art. And of course realism(realistic skin color studies and realistic rendering, perfection of still life paintings).
Weaknesses are a lack of focus on structural anatomy, construction, form, big form movement, perspective, and imaginary drawing.
These subjects might be taught as seperate lectures, but they are more or less not taught in everyday drawing.
The method is to copy in 2 dimension, make a 2-value graphical image, and then add the 3rd dimension with shading.
Sight size is in general taught for copy of drawings(bargues) and drawing/painting the plastercasts. At some schools/ateliers they also use sight size for drawing the figure.
-- About the schools that emphasise construction --
The constructional schools are built on the sculptural drawing techniques invented in the renaissance.(Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael
The method is to built the figure or still life in 3 dimensions - using perspective. Crosshatch and planar rendering.
(I will post the basic renaissance system later, as it was taught by the russian master Boris B. Kazakov)
There is a difference in the emphasis of the individual schools, some are leaning towards realism more than others, but all are still based on 3d construction, not shape-copying.
Understanding of 3 dimensions, (perspective) and mass. Structural anatomy, construction, big form movement, gesture, drawing and shading from imagination, preperation for clay or computer sculpting. As well as animation.
Time!!! (it takes years alone to master anatomy and figure construction) so it will not be possible to draw or paint realistically within a few years.
Works thus won't have the same completeness as in the realist system(will look constructed). Not possible to get the same technical mastery over paint and colors within few years.
-- Final thoughts --
Where to go pretty much depends on what you want the most. In general you'd need both realism and construction to be a perfectly trained artist, but we all have different artistic preferences. And unfortunately time and money is everybodies problem, so choose wisely.
Books regarding figure construction :
Die Gestalt des Menchen, Gottfried Bammes (yep it's German, but you don't have to read the text to get the point) http://www.amazon.com/Die-Gestalt-Me...6308721&sr=8-1 (you might wanna check out amazon.de as well - it's probably a lot cheaper!
Drawing lessons from the great masters, Robert Beverly Hale http://www.amazon.com/Drawing-Lesson...6308783&sr=1-1
Vilppu Drawing Manual, Glenn Vilppu http://www.amazon.com/Vilppu-Drawing...6308812&sr=1-1
The artist's complete guide to facial expression, Gary Faigin (the most complete book regarding human emotions related to facial anatomy) http://www.amazon.com/Artists-Comple...6311296&sr=8-1
The Frank Reilly School of Art http://www.amazon.com/Frank-Reilly-S...6386164&sr=8-1
Free online books(can be downloaded as pdf) :
Online version of Gray's anatomy(not for download) (http://www.bartleby.com/107/)
Bridgman's complete guide to drawing from life, Bridgman (http://www.scribd.com/doc/6692986/br...wing-from-life)
Constructive anatomy, Bridgeman (http://www.scribd.com/doc/4461737/Co...eorge-Bridgman)
The human machine, Bridgeman (http://www.scribd.com/doc/4461582/Th...George-Brigman)
Figure drawing for all it's worth, Andrew Loomis (http://www.scribd.com/doc/2433658/An...-All-its-Worth)
Drawing the human head, Burne Hogarth (http://www.scribd.com/doc/2580517/vi...Human-head-eng)
Dynamic anatomy, Burne Hogarth (http://www.scribd.com/doc/9561347/Bu...omy-in-English)
Dynamic wrinkles and drapery, Burne Hogarth (http://www.scribd.com/doc/2176759/Bu...es-and-Drapery)
Drawing dynamic hands, Burne Hogarth (http://www.scribd.com/doc/2883561/Bu...-Dynamic-Hands)
Vilppu figure drawing setup (http://www.scribd.com/doc/2968567/Vilppu-Figure-Drawing)
Human anatomy for artists (http://www.scribd.com/doc/8567500/Hu...my-for-Artists)
Wir Zeichnen Den Menschen, Gottfried Bammes http://www.scribd.com/doc/24690639/G...n-Den-Menschen
E-books that costs money....
The Sculptor and Art Student's Guide to the Proportions of the Human Form By Dr. Johann Gottfried Schadow(http://figure-drawings.com/artstudentsguide.html)
The Art Student's Guide to the Bones and Muscles of the Human Body and Lessons on Foreshortening By Dr. Johann Gottfried Schadow (http://figure-drawings.com/bones-and-muscles.html)
Books regarding realism.
"The human figure" by Vanderpoel. (http://www.amazon.com/Human-Figure-J.../dp/0486204324)
Academy of Realist Art has made a dvd of the system - (http://store.arc-store.com/drfrfiv.html)
Cast drawing using the sight size approach, Darren R. Rousar (http://www.amazon.com/Cast-Drawing-U...5179772&sr=1-1)
Classical drawing atelier, Juliette Aristides (http://www.amazon.com/Classical-Draw...d_bxgy_b_img_b)
Classical painting atelier, Juliette Aristides (http://www.amazon.com/Classical-Pain...d_bxgy_b_img_b)
Free online tutorials :
Tutorial/explanation of Prudhon's technique (http://www.art.net/Studios/visual/Re...nPrudon1a.html)
Tutorial about gesture (with animations) http://www.art.net/Studios/visual/Re...eDrawing1.html
Tutorial about Bargue measuring (http://www.conceptart.org/forums/sho...d.php?t=113729)
Tutorial about Bargue drawing(page1) and a tutorial about cast painting(page4) from a conceptart sketchbook, Dorian from Angel Academy of Art(http://www.conceptart.org/forums/sho...d.php?p=725824)
Tutorial about Charcoal drawing(Angel academy, also from Dorian, God bless him!!) http://conceptart.org/forums/showthr...t=95605&page=2
Tutorial about painting at Angel Academy of Art(Michael John Angel, head of Angel Academy of Art) (http://www.artrenewal.org/articles/2...ing-Method.pdf)
Some stuff from Frank Reilly's school of drawing. http://www.dhfa.net/Artiststatement2.html
How to build a miniature flayed human body in clay and wire (http://ameralart.com/eSculpture.html)
Books about the old academies and stuff :
Life Class: The Academic Male Nude 1820-1920 (Paperback) by Stephen Boyd (Author), Edward Lucie-Smith (Author) (http://www.amazon.com/Life-Class-Aca...pr_product_top)
The Nude in French Art and Culture, 1870-1910 (Hardcover) by Heather Dawkins(Author) (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0521807557?...89&camp=211189)
The French neoclassic and academic tradition, 1800-1900 : figurative and compositional paintings, oil sketches, and works on paper : winter exhibition, 1984 Shepherd Gallery.
French oil sketches and the academic tradition Barnes, Joanna.
The invention of the model : artists and models in Paris, 1830-1870 Waller, Susan
The artist's model from Etty to Spencer Postle, Martin
Strictly academic; life drawing in the nineteenth century State University of New York at Binghamton. University Art Gallery
The Academy and French Painting in the 19th Century, (Albert Boime http://www.amazon.com/Academy-French...6348913&sr=1-4)
The Lure of Paris: Nineteenth-Century American Painters and Their French Teachers, Helene Barbara Weinberg (http://www.amazon.com/Lure-Paris-Nin...6348976&sr=1-1)
Figures du Corps (review, http://www.beardedroman.com/?p=447) (don't know were you can get this book, perhaps in Paris)
Articles about academical education :
La Academia dei Desidorosi: A Pre-cursor to the Nineteenth-Century Academy (http://beardedroman.com/?p=342)
Léon Bonnat (French, 1833-1922): The First Classical Realist? (http://beardedroman.com/?p=367)
List of web galleries containing academical drawings and paintings :
Spanish academic :
French academic :
Most of Bouguereau's work. Including pencil drawings and compositional studies (http://www.xs4all.nl/~frqnc23/framesen.html)
Russian academic :
Drawings from the Mukina institute by Joseph Menna (http://www.josephmenna.com/apps/phot...lbumid=4936288)
Kramskoy paintings (http://www.tretyakovgallery.ru/ru/co.../image/_id/196) (http://www.kramskoy.info/component/o...id,14/catid,1/)
Various 20th century russian paintings (http://www.leningradschool.com/)
Various contemporary russian paintings (http://www.russianpaintings.net/gallery.vphp?genre=52)
Supplies for the artist
HIGHLY RECOMMENDED Online 3D ecorche models(move mouse and they spin) and real model pics that turns into drawn muscles when moving the mouse(requires flash) (http://images.google.dk/imgres?imgur...a%3DX%26um%3D1)
HIGHLY RECOMMENDED 3D virtual anatomy (http://www.msd-control.com/services/...ish/index.html)
Models of human anatomy (http://www.3bscientific.com/)
Models of human anatomy (https://www.biovere.com/)
Real animal bones for animal drawing (highly recommended) (www.animalskeletons.net)
Sculpture casts (http://philippefaraut.com/store/refe...cal-casts.html)
Different sculpture casts (http://www.giustgallery.com/giust_anatomical_casts.htm)
Other sculpture casts http://www.laboratoryofsculpture.com/
Sculpture casts from Italy http://www.statue-gipsoteca.com/
Online version of Gray's anatomy(not for download) (http://www.bartleby.com/107/)
plastic skulls - http://www.skullsunlimited.com/
more plastic skulls http://www.skullarama.com/
bones - http://www.boneroom.com
bones and anatomy http://www.zaskmedical.com/anatomicalspine.htm
various skeletons - http://microscopemallonline.com/skeletons.html
bones - http://www.kilgoreinternational.com/...rt_direction=1
skulls - http://fossilhistory.com/data/modernskull01.html
Acland's anatomy dvds (HIGHLY recommended anatomy dissection dvds, offers a complete view of the human body, all muscles, functions, bones, origins of muscles on bones, veins, joints (how they really look and work) and A LOT of other valuable information.
Dvd 1 upper extremity (http://www.amazon.com/Aclands-DVD-At...ref=pd_sim_b_3)
Dvd 2 lower extremity (http://www.amazon.com/Aclands-DVD-At...ref=pd_sim_b_2)
Dvd 3 trunk (http://www.amazon.com/Aclands-DVD-At...d_bxgy_b_img_c)
Dvd 4 Head and neck part 1 (http://www.amazon.com/Aclands-DVD-At...ref=pd_sim_b_2)
Dvd 5 Head and neck part 2 (http://www.amazon.com/Aclands-DVD-At...ref=pd_sim_b_7)